Fiber optical provides ultra long distance network connection. It can be use up to 120km meters. Another advantage of fiber optic cable is low latency. You can even feel the video pops up fast on the NVR while using fiber optical link comparing to the copper cate5/cat6. The fiber optical cable is simply the plastic, which does not absorb the surge in the environment. All these combine together makes the fiber optical cable a perfect medium to setup long distance network link.
Despite all these advantages, there is one issue for setting up a complete network system, because we can not inject power to the fiber optic cable, that means we will need to deal with the power issue separately. Unlike the Power over Ethernet (PoE), which enables single Ethernet cable to carry both power and data to remote IP cameras. It simplify the system installation.
Fortunately, with the help of PoE fiber media convertor, we still can take the advantages of the fiber optic cable, and use the PoE technology behind the media convertor. To put this into reality, you need two media convertors stay on point A and point B to form a completefiber optical link. The power sources are required for both point A and point B to supply these two media converters. In the point B closed to the PoE IP camera, the DC48V power supply is required to inject to the PoE fiber media convertor that is connected to PoE IP camera by using the cat5e/cat6 Ethernet cable. You can have ultra long distance link between point A and point B by using the fiber optical cable. The camera will get PoE Power from point B. This is a typical fiber optical cable connection for PoE IP camera.
We can adjust the above setup by postpone the power source somewhere between the point A and point B for POE media converter. It requires PoE media converter to be equipped with built-in power regulator that used to regulate the power to standard DC48V for PoE IP camera. As we know, there is always voltage drop in the long distance power transmission. If we design the system properly, we can move the power source 2.5KM far from the IP camera, and this demonstrate the great value for the scenario that power sources is not available around the point A.
In practical installation, the fiber optic cable presents some challenges. Unlike copper cable we can easily crimp the terminal in the field, it needs special tools to splice the fiber terminals. The fiber optic terminal has higher requirement than the copper, because it is simply the light transmitting through the cable. Any deviation even the dust could cause the signal being distorted. The pre-made fiber optic cable saves lots of trouble. Because the cable is pre-made in the factory and 100% tested, and there are pulling eyes equipped on both terminators. The complete installation is only to wire the cable , then plug and play, which is safe and fast.
Like copper Ethernet cable, there are two major types of fiber optical cable – single mode and multimode. Unlike cate5/cat6, this two types of fiber optical cable are not compatible with each other. The core of multimode fiber optic cable is bigger than single mode fiber optical cable. If you simply conjunct these two types of cable together, there is an issue for the light to transmit through two different tunnels. The signal can transmit totally longer by using single mode fiber optic cable, so it is recommended to used for IP cameras system in most of the cases.
Before you can setup the fiber optical link between point A and point B, you need to have fiber optic module (also named SFP module). Usually the fiber optic module is being sold separately from the media convertor. As I mentioned the single mode fiber optical cable has smaller core than multi-mode fiber optical cable. The single mode fiber optic module is required to match the cable type. The bi-directional technology in SFP module allows single fiber optic cable to transmit and receive the signal, the different wavelength is being used to separate the signal transmission. It saves one fiber optic cable. If dual connectors fiber optical cable is deployed, the extra cable can be used for backup or system expanding in future.
The pre-made fiber optic cable makes the system setup easily and fast. What if the length of pre-made fiber optic cable is not enough, then we can use the fiber optic cable couple to extend the pre-made fiber optical cable.